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A greenish layer that forms on the surface of copper or bronze; a smooth shiny surface that gradually develops on wood or leather. Italian “patina” < Latin “patina”=shallow dish (sense of layer that develops after lots of use for cooking).

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African evergreen tree (Tamarindus indica) with an edible fruit used as a flavoring in Asian cooking. Latin “tamarindus” < Arabic “tamr-hindi” < “tamr=date (fruit) + “hindi”=India.

A person who believes that biblical prophecies about the End of the World have already taken place. Latin “praeteritus”=past, bygone < “praeterire” < “preter”=before, beyond + “ire”=to go.

The hard shell on the outside of some animals such as a crab, lobster or turtle. Spanish “carapacho”=upper shell of a tortoise. Uncertain origin, possibly “caparazon”=horse’s body armor < Latin “capara”= a hood.

A wide pile of earth or a stone wall built to protect a castle or city. Middle French “rempard” < “remparer”=to fortify or take possession < Latin “anteparare”=to seize < “ante”=before + “parare”=prepare.

A cylindrical coil of wire that acts like a magnet when an electric current runs through it. French “solenoide” < Greek “solen”=piped-shaped + “oeithos”=having the form of.

Capable of being stretched out or elongated. Latin “tensilis”=capable of being stretched < “tendere”=to stretch + “-il”=adjective-forming suffix.

Do something special to remember and honor an important event or person from the past. Latin “commemorare”=bring to remembrance < “com-“=together + “memorare”=to mention, relate.

A person who behaves badly, wrongly, or criminally. Middle French “miscreaunt” < Old French “mescreant”=unbelieving, heretical < “mes”=ill, wrongly + “creire”=to believe < Latin “credare”=to believe.

The small, precise, or trivial details of something. Latin “minutia”=smallness.

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