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A moderate to dark yellowish brown color. French “terre d’ombre”=earth of shadow < Latin “ombra”=shadow or “Umbrian” = belonging to the province of Umbria in Italy.


The rapid repetition of of alternating musical tones to produce a vibrating effect. Italian “tremolo” < Latin “tremulus”=shaking, quivering < “tremere”=to tremble or shake.

A shackle for the wrist or ankle, usually plural “manacles.” Anglo-Norman “manicle” < Latin “manicula”=plough-handle < “manus”=hand.

Relating to the two main arteries which carry blood to the head and neck. Latin “carotides” < Greek “karotides” < “karoun”=to stupify, plunge into deep sleep. So called because this was thought to be the effect of compressing these arteries.

To win against opposition and be successful, especially after long struggle. Middle French “prĂ©valoir” < Latin “praevalere”= to have superior force, weight, or influence < “prae”=before + “valere”=to have power.

A special right or benefit that is given to some people and not to others. Latin “privilegium”=a bill or law affecting an individual < “privus”=private + “lex”=law.

A business that has the right to sell another company’s goods or services in a particular area. Middle English “frangise”=immunity or privilege < “franc”=free < Latin “francus”=free.

Near or at the back of something. Latin “posterior”=a person who a came before; an ancestor < “posterus”=later or next.

At or towards the front. Latin “anterior” < “ante”=before, previous + “-ior”=comparative indicator.

A disturbance, noisy quarrel, or brawl; a fight, skirmish, conflict. Anglo-Norman “affray” < to quarrel or startle < Latin “affraiare”=to alarm, frighten.

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