A syndicate, combine, or trust formed especially to regulate prices and output in business. German “Kartell” < Italian “cartello”=paper, letter, or bill < Latin “carta”=card.

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Type of grass found on sandy shores. Old Norse “maralmr”=sea grass < “marr”=sea + “halmr”=stem, stalk (of grass).

Self-confidence, assurance, poise. French “aplomb”=perpendicular < from the phrase “√† plomb”=according to a plumb line <¬†Latin “plumbum”=ball of lead.

Descriptive of any bird that scratches the ground to find food (such as chickens). Latin “Rasorus”=scratching birds < “radere”=to scrape.

A type of young onion with a small round end and a long green stem. Anglo-Norman “scaloun” < based on Latin “Ascalonia caepa”= onion from Ascalon, a port in Palestine.

A Scottish man chieftain who held land from a Scottish king, same rank as an earl’s son. Old English “thegn”=servant, soldier < Old Germanic “thegno”=boy or child.

An impudent or arrogant young woman or girl. Middle English “chitte”=a shoot or sprout. Of obscure origin; perhaps Old English “chithe”=a tiny shoot.

A woman’s ankle-length cloak with armholes or sleeves. Middle French “pellice”=fur-lined robe < Latin “pellicia”=coat of furs < “pellis”=skin or fur.

Russian cottage or large country house, used as a second home. Russian “daca”=a grant or gift of land < “dat”=to give.

The windowed upper part a large church. Middle English “cleer story” < Latin “clarum”=light, lighted + “historia”=upper level of a church.