A commander of 10,000 men. Greek “muriarkos” < “murios”=ten thousand + “-arkos”=ruler, that which rules.

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A bird with shiny black feathers that looks like a crow but is bigger. Old English “hraefn” < Proto-Germanic “*hrabnaz.”

A swaggering gallant or bully. Middle Dutch “ruter”=a cavalry soldier + “-kin”=diminutive suffix (a little/childish bully).

An amount that is too much or more than you need. Anglo-Norman “surfeit”=excess < Old French “sorfait” < “sur”=above, excess + “faire”=to do.

The point where a planet is furthest from the star it is orbiting. Latin “aphelium” < Greek “af-/apo-“=off, from + “helios”=sun.

The point where a planet is closest to the star it is orbiting. Latin “perihelium” < “peri-“=around, go round + Greek “helios”=sun.

To breed or spread prolifically or rapidly. Latin “pullulare”=to sprout or spring forth < “pullus”=the young of an animal.

A bright or luminous spot on the surface of the sun. Latin “facula” < “fax”=torch + “-ula”=diminutive. i.e. a little torch.

Having or showing the symptoms of a fever; full of nervous energy or excitement. Latin “febrilis” < “febris”=fever.

The feature where a word can have multiple meanings. French “polysémie” < Latin “polysemus” < Greek “polisemos”=having any meanings < “poly”=many + “sima”=sign or mark.

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